Author Topic: The Arduino programming language is a cross-platform implementation of Wiring  (Read 3002 times)

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Software Santa

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The Arduino programming language is a cross-platform implementation of Wiring.



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What is Arduino?

Arduino is a tool for making computers that can sense and control more of the physical world than your desktop computer. It's an open-source physical computing platform based on a simple microcontroller board, and a development environment for writing software for the board.

Arduino can be used to develop interactive objects, taking inputs from a variety of switches or sensors, and controlling a variety of lights, motors, and other physical outputs. Arduino projects can be stand-alone, or they can be communicate with software running on your computer (e.g. Flash, Processing, MaxMSP.) The boards can be assembled by hand or purchased preassembled; the open-source IDE can be downloaded for free.

The Arduino programming language is an implementation of Wiring, a similar physical computing platform, which is based on the Processing multimedia programming environment.

Why Arduino?

There are many other microcontrollers and microcontroller platforms available for physical computing. Parallax Basic Stamp, Netmedia's BX-24, Phidgets, MIT's Handyboard, and many others offer similar functionality. All of these tools take the messy details of microcontroller programming and wrap it up in an easy-to-use package. Arduino also simplifies the process of working with microcontrollers, but it offers some advantage for teachers, students, and interested amateurs over other systems:

    * Inexpensive - Arduino boards are relatively inexpensive compared to other microcontroller platforms. The least expensive version of the Arduino module can be assembled by hand, and even the pre-assembled Arduino modules cost less than $50

    * Cross-platform - The Arduino software runs on Windows, Macintosh OSX, and Linux operating systems. Most microcontroller systems are limited to Windows.

    * Simple, clear programming environment - The Arduino programming environment is easy-to-use for beginners, yet flexible enough for advanced users to take advantage of as well. For teachers, it's conveniently based on the Processing programming environment, so students learning to program in that environment will be familiar with the look and feel of Arduino

    * Open source and extensible software- The Arduino software and is published as open source tools, available for extension by experienced programmers. The language can be expanded through C++ libraries, and people wanting to understand the technical details can make the leap from Arduino to the AVR C programming language on which it's based. SImilarly, you can add AVR-C code directly into your Arduino programs if you want to.

    * Open source and extensible hardware - The Arduino is based on Atmel's ATMEGA8 and ATMEGA168 microcontrollers. The plans for the modules are published under a Creative Commons license, so experienced circuit designers can make their own version of the module, extending it and improving it. Even relatively inexperienced users can build the breadboard version of the module in order to understand how it works and save money.

How do I use Arduino?

To get started, follow the instructions for your operating system: Windows, Mac OS X or Linux; or the additional instructions for your board: Arduino Mini, Arduino BT, or shield: Xbee. The text of the Arduino getting started guide is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License. Code samples in the guide are released into the public domain.

Frequently Asked Questions

What is an Arduino?

Glad you asked, we have a great introduction page on Arduino, click here to read it.

How can I get an Arduino board?

You can buy an Arduino board from one of the distributors listed on the buy page. If you'd prefer to build your own, see the Arduino Single-Sided Serial board, which can be easily etched and assembled.

Is Arduino open-source?

Yes. The source code for the Java environment is released under the GPL, the C/C++ microcontroller libraries under the LGPL, and the schematics and CAD files under Creative Commons Attribution Share-Alike licenses.

I want to design my own board; what should I do?

The reference designs for the Arduino boards are available from the hardware page. They're licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution Share-Alike license, so you are free to use and adapt them for your own needs without asking permission or paying a fee. If you're looking to make something of interest to the community, we'd encourage you to discuss your ideas on the hardware development forum so that potential users can offer suggestions.

What should I call my boards?

If you're making your own board, come up with your own name! This will allow people identify you with your products and help you to build a brand. Be creative: try to suggest what people might use the board for, or emphasize the form factor, or just pick a random word that sounds cool. "Arduino" is a trademark of Arduino team and should not be used for unofficial variants. If you're interested in having your design included in the official Arduino product line, please see the So you want to make an Arduino document and contact the Arduino team. Note that while we don't attempt to restrict uses of the "duino" suffix, its use causes the Italians on the team to cringe (apparently it sounds terrible); you might want to avoid it.

How can I run the Arduino IDE under Linux?

See instructions for Ubuntu Linux, for Debian Linux, for Gentoo Linux, for Linux, or for Linux on PPC. This this forum thread has more information. Or, you can use Arduino from the command line, and not have to install Java.

Can I program the Arduino board in C?

In fact, you already are; the Arduino language is merely a set of C/C++ functions that can be called from your code. Your sketch undergoes minor changes (e.g. automatic generation of function prototypes) and then is passed directly to a C/C++ compiler (avr-g++). All standard C and C++ constructs supported by avr-g++ should work in Arduino. For more details, see the page on the Arduino build process.

Can I use a different IDE to program the Arduino board?

It is possible to compile programs for the Arduino using a Makefile and the command line. If you can get your IDE to run make, you should be all set.

Can I use an Arduino board without the Arduino software?

Sure. It's just an ATmega168 development board, you can use straight AVR C or C++ (with avr-gcc and avrdude or AVR Studio) to program it.

Can I use the Arduino software with other AVR boards?

Yes, although it may require some modifications to the Arduino core libraries. See the other hardware page for details.



Thanks to 'octelcogopod' for Suggesting this!

http://arduino.cc/en/Main/Software